C. Mary Schooling

Professor Schooling is chair of the Environmental, Occupational, and Geospatial Health Sciences department. Professor Schooling began as a teaching assistant at the University of Hong Kong in 2002, after starting a career in technology at IBM. Intrigued by unexplained differences in disease patterns by place, time and migration, Professor Schooling has applied well-established evolutionary biology theory to generate new insights about the causes of major diseases, specifically exploiting the idea that reproduction trades off against longevity.

This novel research program has impacted policy and practice. Professor Schooling’s work contributed to warnings about the cardiovascular risk of testosterone from the United States Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada in 2014/5. Prescriptions of testosterone in the US have since fallen.

Professor Schooling is now identifying new actionable targets for disease prevention from regulators of fertility. Potential targets include environmental exposures, dietary items and existing therapies that could be re-purposed. Professor Schooling has also been instrumental in creating a large, population-representative birth cohort to investigate these theories. Professor Schooling is a keen teacher of research methods. Professor Schooling is an associate editor of the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, a member of the PLOS ONE Editorial Board and of the Social Science and Medicine Advisory Board. Professor Schooling is also a fellow by Distinction of the UK Faculty of Public Health.


Key Publications (of 300+):

  1. Schooling CM, Tachykinin neurokinin 3 receptor antagonists: a new treatment for cardiovascular disease? the Lancet, 2017;390(10095):709-711
  2. Kodali H, Pavilonis B, Schooling CM, Effects of copper and zinc on ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction: a Mendelian Randomization study, Am J Clin Nutr, 2018;108(2):237-242
  3. Zhao JV, Schooling CM, The role of linoleic acid in auto-immune disorders: a Mendelian randomization study, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 2018 Nov 8
  4. Zhao JV, Kwok MK, Schooling CM, Effect of glutamate and aspartate on ischemic heart disease, blood pressure and diabetes: a Mendelian randomization study, Am J Clin Nutr,
  5. Schooling CM, Could androgens be relevant to partly explain why men have lower life expectancy than women? J Epidemiol Community Health, 2016;70(4):324-8
  6. Xu L, Freeman G, Cowling BJ, Schooling CM, Testosterone and cardiovascular related events in men: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, BMC Med 2013;11:108
  7. Schooling CM, Au Yeung SL, Freeman G, Cowling BJ, The effect of stains on testosterone, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, BMC Med, 2013;11:57
  8. Schooling CM, Freeman G, Cowling BJ, Mendelian Randomization and estimation of treatment efficacy for chronic diseases, Am J Epidemiol, 2013;177:1128-33
  9. Schooling CM, Jiang CQ, Lam TH, Zhang WS, Cheng KK, Leung GM, Life-Course Origins of Social Inequalities in Metabolic risk in the Population of a Developing Country, Am J Epidemiol 2008:167:419-28
  10. Schooling CM, Lam TH, Li ZH, Ho SY, Chan WM, Ho KS, Tham MK, Cowling BJ, Leung GM. Obesity, physical activity and mortality in a prospective Chinese elderly cohort, Arch Intern Med, 2006;166 1498-504



  • PhD in Epidemiology from UCL, UK
  • MSc in Statistics from Birkbeck College, London, UK
  • MSc in Operational Research from Strathclyde University, Glasgow, UK
  • MA in Pure Maths and Medieval History from University of St Andrews, UK


Research Interests

Application of evolutionary biology to public health, non-communicable diseases, cohort studies, endocrine disruptors, methods, Mendelian randomization, explanatory models



Mary Schooling